Physical abuse[ edit ] Among professionals and the general public, people often do not agree on what behaviors constitute physical abuse of a child. This includes hitting, beating, kicking, shaking, biting, strangling, scalding, burning, poisoning and suffocating. Much physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with the object of punishing. Corporal punishment involves hitting 'smacking', 'slapping', 'spanking' children, with the hand or with an implement — whip, stick, belt, shoe, wooden spoon, etc.
This chapter reviews the foundations for the development of child abuse and neglect law and policy and describes the current environment of laws and policies related to child abuse and neglect at both the federal and state levels.
Also discussed is the evaluation and analysis of these laws and policies. Related research needs are detailed as well. Policy change in the child protection arena frequently has resulted from a synergistic set of factors: Thus, for example, it was these factors that led to federal legislative policy reform making voluntary home visiting more widely available through Section of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
This Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program is designed to strengthen and improve related programs and activities, improve coordination of services for at-risk communities, and identify and provide evidence-based home visiting programs that can improve outcomes for families residing in at-risk communities.
Regulations and protocols are typical results of the process of implementing laws at the state and local levels.
Examples are the recommendations for policy reform issued in the early to mids by the U. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect,p.
Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, focuses on the broad federal government response to child abuse and neglect. Included as well are four pages of recommendations for improving federally supported research and evaluation related to child abuse and neglect.
Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect,again addresses federal research policy, calling on federal agencies to subject federally supported child protection activities to rigorous evaluation; calling on the National Institute of Mental Health to solicit research aimed at clarifying the relationships among social support, culture, and child abuse and neglect; and urging that federally supported research also assess children's, parents', neighbors', and workers' own experiences of the context in which child abuse and neglect occurs and their perceptions of systemic responses to the problem.
At its core, the debate around the development of laws and policies to help prevent child abuse and neglect involves questions of public value Pecora et al.
It also involves trade-offs entailed in law making between public benefit and private interests. What is the balance between children's fundamental right to be safe and parents' right to raise their children as they see fit?
Should the government's role be to offer families, on a voluntary basis, services related to the protection of their children, or to force families to accept services they could construe as unwanted government intrusion into family life?
How can policy promote fairness in child protective interventions, recognizing, for example, that some families come from different cultures whose practices may not coincide with what is covered by child protection laws?
What is the appropriate balance between the due process rights of parents not to have child abuse or neglect case records preserved by child protection agencies in cases that are very old or in which a report of abuse or neglect was not substantiated and the authority of states to maintain appropriate central registries of child abuse and neglect case-related data that might later be used as part of child protection efforts?
The development of child abuse and neglect laws and policies should include the application of reason, evidence, and an evaluative framework to such decisions Pecora et al.
The application of reason refers to public discourse by practitioners, advocates, researchers, and legislators Pecora et al. The evidence for passing laws and changing public policy is derived from a variety of sources, some explicitly guided by research and scientific evidence and others reflecting social consensus about legitimate government activity.
For example, even though research evidence suggests that lengthy incarceration for acts of violence is not always necessary for community safety, it is widely supported by citizens because of the societal functions of punishment for wrongdoing and justice for victims.This statistic shows the number of cases of child abuse in the U.S.
in , by age of victim. In , a total number of , children aged one year and younger were abused in the United States. Child protective services in Arizona were involved in 21 percent of the child abuse cases prior to the fatal injury or neglect; in two cases, out-of-state child protective services agencies were involved but did not report findings to Arizona.
Mandatory reporting legislation in the United States, Canada, and Australia: A . Start studying Psychology Chapters Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
What is the major cause of death of preschool and school-age children the United States? Accidents. In the united states, most cases of child abuse involve which of the following? The Description of Child Abuse and its Rising Cases in the United States.
million cases of child abuse are reported every year in the United States. Children who experience child abuse and neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile, 28% more likely to be arrested as an adult, and 30% more likely to commit violence crime.
It is the physical or emotional abuse of a child by a parent, guardian, or other person. Reports of child abuse, including sexual abuse, beating, and murder, have climbed in the United States and some authorities believe that the number of cases is largely u.