At whatever level we study it--relationships between individuals, new names for sports clubs, the human admixture at cocktail parties, in the police, on the directing boards of national or private banks--decolonization is quite simply the replacing of a certain "species" of men by another "species" of men. Without any period of transition, there is a total, complete, and absolute substitution.
InHerbert E. Bolton issued the call to incorporate the Spanish Borderlands into the general history of the United States. Recent scholarship has departed dramatically from earlier characterizations of frontiers as meeting points between European civilization and Indian barbarism. At times, Borderlands were places dominated by violence and warfare; at other times, they were characterized by long periods of peace and accommodation.
Borderlands transformed both Europeans and Indians, often in unexpected and unintended ways. To complicate matters further, Borderlands are no longer viewed exclusively as contested geographical spaces where Europeans and Indians competed for power.
The New Borderlands historiography also recognizes the importance of non-European frontiers: No single school of thought, interpretive framework, or methodological approach has come to dominate the field, and the fundamental question of what precisely constitutes a Borderland remains contested and unresolved.
For that reason, the entries below do not focus exclusively on the conquest expeditions of the 16th century.
Theories and Approaches No scholar has influenced 20th-century Borderlands historiography more than Herbert E. In fact, Borderlands historiography remains less theory-driven than many other fields of historical inquiry. Jackson captures the spirit of much of the recent Borderlands historiography, which emphasizes regional diversity and the importance of moving away from the Eurocentric perspective of Bolton and his early followers.
In one of the few attempts to articulate a theoretical model to distinguish between Borderlands and frontiers, Adelman and Aron proposes a provocative new approach to the study of Borderlands regions.
Adelman, Jeremy, and Stephen Aron. The essay provides a useful model that should be tested in other frontier regions. Bannon, John Francis, ed. Bolton and the Spanish Borderlands. University of Oklahoma Press, Bolton, widely considered to be the pioneer of Borderlands historiography.
By Charles Gibson, — Chapter Nine of his magisterial survey, Spain in America, represents one of the early attempts to integrate Spanish Borderlands into the wider historiography of colonial Latin America.
The Frontier in Latin American History. An early attempt to examine the significance of frontiers in Latin American history. Includes maps and a bibliographic essay.
New Views of Borderlands History. University of New Mexico Press, Considers the history of Northern Mexico and the Southwest Borderlands as fundamentally different from the Borderlands history of Florida. Includes useful maps but no separate bibliography.A social revolution is necessary in order to abolish war forever, but the success of the revolution depends on the means used.
Violent and barbaric means are beneath humans and will only encourage more violence and war (as human history has shown). A textbook on the theory and practice of non-violence, written by a Dutch pacifist and anarcho-syndicalist who warns that "the more violence, the less revolution".
Classic argument for nonviolent resistance from an anarchist anti-war perspective, with a broad historical perspective, and giving more emphasis to examples of unarmed resistance in the socialist tradition (for example in .
THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much.
Introduction. The cycles of revolution and counterrevolution that characterized the Latin American Cold War reached their climax in the outbreak of violent conflicts that engulfed Central America in .
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