Soil pollution research papers

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Soil pollution research papers

After such organisms die, the bacterial degradation of their biomass consumes the oxygen in the water, thereby creating the state of hypoxia. According to Ullmann's Encyclopedia, "the primary limiting factor for eutrophication is phosphate.

Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to live, and is the limiting factor for plant growth in many freshwater ecosystems.

Phosphate adheres tightly to soil, so it is mainly transported by erosion. Once translocated to lakes, the extraction of phosphate into water is slow, hence the difficulty of reversing the effects of eutrophication. Excess nutrients are applied to the soil.

Soil pollution research paper pdf

Some nutrients leach into the soil where they can remain for years. Eventually, they get drained into the water body. Some nutrients run off over the ground into the body of water.

The excess nutrients cause an algal bloom. The algal bloom blocks the light of the sun from reaching the bottom of the water body. The plants beneath the algal bloom die because they cannot get sunlight to photosynthesize.

Eventually, the algal bloom dies and sinks to the bottom of the lake. Bacteria begins to decompose the remains, using up oxygen for respiration. The decomposition causes the water to become depleted of oxygen. Larger life forms, such as fish, suffocate to death.

This body of water can no longer support life. Cultural eutrophication Cultural eutrophication is the process that speeds up Soil pollution research papers eutrophication because of human activity.

Extra nutrients are also supplied by treatment plants, golf courses, fertilizers, farms including fish farmsas well as untreated sewage in many countries. This decomposition process consumes oxygen, which reduces the concentration of dissolved oxygen.

The depleted oxygen levels in turn may lead to fish kills and a range of other effects reducing biodiversity. Nutrients may become concentrated in an anoxic zone and may only be made available again during autumn turn-over or in conditions of turbulent flow. Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive.

The water becomes cloudy, typically coloured a shade of green, yellow, brown, or red.

Research Papers on Soil pollution -

Eutrophication also decreases the value of rivers, lakes and aesthetic enjoyment. Health problems can occur where eutrophic conditions interfere with drinking water treatment. Runoff from agriculture and development, pollution from septic systems and sewerssewage sludge spreading, and other human-related activities increase the flow of both inorganic nutrients and organic substances into ecosystems.

Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability. Phosphorus is often regarded as the main culprit in cases of eutrophication in lakes subjected to "point source" pollution from sewage pipes. The concentration of algae and the trophic state of lakes correspond well to phosphorus levels in water.

Studies conducted in the Experimental Lakes Area in Ontario have shown a relationship between the addition of phosphorus and the rate of eutrophication.

Soil pollution research papers

Humankind has increased the rate of phosphorus cycling on Earth by four times, mainly due to agricultural fertilizer production and application.

Between andan estimated , tonnes of phosphorus was applied to Earth's surface, primarily on croplands. Eutrophy occurs in many lakes in temperate grasslands, for instance.

Paleolimnologists now recognise that climate change, geology, and other external influences are critical in regulating the natural productivity of lakes. Some lakes also demonstrate the reverse process meiotrophicationbecoming less nutrient rich with time.

In contrast to freshwater systems, nitrogen is more commonly the key limiting nutrient of marine waters; thus, nitrogen levels have greater importance to understanding eutrophication problems in salt water. Estuaries tend to be naturally eutrophic because land-derived nutrients are concentrated where run-off enters a confined channel.

Upwelling in coastal systems also promotes increased productivity by conveying deep, nutrient-rich waters to the surface, where the nutrients can be assimilated by algae. Examples of anthropogenic sources of nitrogen-rich pollution include seacage fish farming and discharges of ammonia from the production of coke from coal.

Many terrestrial plant species are endangered as a result of soil eutrophication, such as the majority of orchid species in Europe. In meadows, tall grasses that can take advantage of higher nitrogen levels may change the area so that natural species may be lost.

Species-rich fens can be overtaken by reed or reedgrass species. Forest undergrowth affected by run-off from a nearby fertilized field can be turned into a nettle and bramble thicket. Chemical forms of nitrogen are most often of concern with regard to eutrophication, because plants have high nitrogen requirements so that additions of nitrogen compounds will stimulate plant growth.This page provides information on the National Environmental Standard for Assessing and Managing Contaminants in Soil to Protect Human Health (NESCS) and includes guidance for territorial authorities.

Papers which are prepared for publishing should be original research manuscripts, never published before and not under consideration for publication in any other conference proceeding (journal etc.).

Extensive research has been done in the recent years by economists and scientists etc to Environmental Pollutants Sewage and Fossil Fuels These pollutants generally fall under four specific categories; commercial, industrial, sanitary, and surface runoff and.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research (ESPR) serves the international community in all areas of Environmental Science and related subjects with emphasis on chemical compounds. It reports from a broad interdisciplinary. Only One Chance: How Environmental Pollution Impairs Brain Development -- and How to Protect the Brains of the Next Generation (ENVIRONMENTAL .

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