Lecture 13 The French Revolution: The Radical Stage, The proof necessary to convict the enemies of the people is every kind of evidence, either material or moral or verbal or written. Every citizen has the right to seize conspirators and counter-revolutionaries and to arraign them before magistrates. He is required to denounce them when he knows of them.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? In many ways, the Constitution of seemed to fulfil the promises of reform which had been first uttered by the men of All Frenchmen could now be proud that the following rights had been secured: However, by the revolution moved in a more radical and violent direction.
Why the revolution became radical is often debated, and there are essentially two main reasons as to why it did so. First, a counter-revolution, loyal to Church and King, was led by the noble and the clergy and supported by staunch Catholic peasants.
This threatened the changes of the revolutionaries; therefore they turned to drastic measures. Second, the economic, social, and political discontent of the urban working classes also propelled the Revolution in the direction of radicalism.
Popular discontent and Jacobin agitation was evident in August as the city council was overthrown and the Commune of Paris was established. Despite Radicalization french revolution revolutionaries drafting a constitution, they now had no monarch as the royal family was under house arrest.
By September the capital was in a state of chaos as more than 1, people Radicalization french revolution killed. This took place in order to maintain revolution and keep it moving forward. Although the constitution was already enshrined and the citizens had their freedom and liberties, there was still plenty of public dissent and disapproval as to whether or not these laws would help create a new government and prevent the country from breaking apart.
The people had come this far and were not prepared to watch their efforts lead to failure or the restoration of an absolute monarchy. As a result of this radical forces were able to get citizens on side by claiming the constitution of did not meet the demands of all the people.
Radicals led the Commune, discarded the old constitution and called for a National Convention to revise a new one. In JanuaryLouis XVI was executed and the Jacobins condemned their actions by claiming that the monarchy had to be abolished in order to eliminate as many of the royalist and monarchists that remained.
France was declared a republic and it could be suggested that his death signified the emergence of nationalism as people remained loyal to the radicals. In addition to this, it highlighted the point where radicalism would dominate the revolution.
The revolution faced strain as it coped with the weight of foreign war and civil war which caused the revolutionary leadership to grow more radical. Moderate reformers — the Girondins, had previously dominated the National Convention, but this was to change. Division within the convention began to emerge within the Convention as the Jacobins and Girondins desired different aims.
Factional disputes resulted in the replacement of the Girondins with the Jacobins — the far more radical of the two. The Jacobins claimed it was their duty to save the revolution and their strengths helped gain them the support of the sans-culottes.
The Jacobins managed to grip firm control of the Convention and the French Nation. Essentially, they were now the government.
However, with the strain of civil war, economic distress and threats of foreign invasion, they realised strong leadership was required in order to save the revolution. The CPS assumed tight leadership in Apriland it has been argued that the reign of terror followed from this.
The Committee ordered arrests and trials of counter-revolutionaries and imposed government authority. However, there was no turning back from the radical phase that the people had voluntarily entered.
By summer, the reign of terror had spread over France, spearheaded by the infallibility of Robespierre, began persecuting even the innocent.
It can be seen it was far too radical as even the moderate Girondins were accused of counter-revolutionary actions and expelled from the Convention. What was once a legislative, two-sided body had now become an authoritarian oligarchy led by radicals.
It has been argued that this was a step backwards in the revolution as it imitated an absolute monarchy, without the safeguards of constitution.
Around 17, people died as a result of the terror, and this was to be a stage in the revolution that could not be undone. In the summer of there seemed to be less need for terror and the republic seemed a reality. With the 9th Thermidor, the machinery of the Jacobin republic was dismantled.Nov 09, · Watch video · The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Radicalization French Revolution Reasons radicalization of French Revolution By the end of September , the National Assembly announced that its work was done. In many ways, the Constitution of seemed to fulfil the promises of reform which had been first uttered by the men of s - The Enlightenment: led to many European writers criticizing the Monarchy -Start of the Seven Years' War, which compounded the debt situation.
- Coronation of Louis XVI at Reims - Start of American War of Independence (). Jan 17, · French citizens were angry, particularly in rural areas, as the chaos that was the revolution was asking everything from them but giving little.
The stability that came with the monarchy was gone and priests were being killed and taxes were being raised. Starting in , the French Revolution began a period of radicalization, as the initial idea of a constitutional monarchy on the British model was abandoned in favor of a French Republic.
The increasing influence of the Jacobin clubs led to the execution of Louis XVI and the election of the National Convention that would authorize the Reign of.
This installment of my French Revolution Lecture Series focuses on the radicalization of the French Revolution between , starting with the Le Chapelie.