Essay about personality psychology

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Essay about personality psychology

Measuring[ edit ] Personality can be determined through a variety of tests. However, dimensions of personality and scales of personality tests vary and often are poorly defined. Examples of such tests are the: Five-factor model[ edit ] Personality is often broken into statistically-identified factors called the Big Fivewhich are openness to experienceconscientiousnessextraversionagreeablenessand neuroticism or emotional stability.

These components are generally stable over time, and about half of the variance appears to be attributable to a person's genetics rather Essay about personality psychology the effects of one's environment. The implications of these findings can help identify children that are more likely to experience episodes of depression and develop types of treatment that such children are likely to respond to.

In both children and adults, research shows that genetics, as opposed to environmental factors, exert a greater influence on happiness levels. Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality constructs in children are referred to as temperament.

Temperament is regarded as the precursor to personality. This model measures levels of emotionality, activity, sociability, and shyness in children. The personality theorists consider temperament EAS model similar to the Big Five model in adults; however, this might be due to a conflation of concepts of personality and temperament as described above.

Findings show that high degrees of sociability and low degrees of shyness are equivalent to adult extraversion, and correlate with higher levels of life satisfaction in children.

Another interesting finding has been the link found between acting extraverted and positive affect. Extraverted behaviors include acting talkative, assertive, adventurous, and outgoing. For the purposes of this study, positive affect is defined as experiences of happy and enjoyable emotions.

In other words, the study focused on the benefits and drawbacks of introverts people who are shy, socially inhibited and non-aggressive acting extraverted, and of extraverts acting introverted. After acting extraverted, introverts' experience of positive affect increased [7] whereas extraverts seemed to experience lower levels of positive affect and suffered from the phenomenon of ego depletion.

Ego depletionor cognitive fatigue, is the use of one's energy to overtly act in a way that is contrary to one's inner disposition.

When people act in a contrary fashion, they divert most, if not all, cognitive energy toward regulating this foreign style of behavior and attitudes. Because all available energy is being used to maintain this contrary behavior, the result is an inability to use any energy to make important or difficult decisions, plan for the future, control or regulate emotions, or perform effectively on other cognitive tasks.

The two types of explanations attempt to account for this difference are instrumental theories and temperamental theories. The temperamental theory suggests that extraverts have a disposition that generally leads them to experience a higher degree of positive affect.

In their study of extraversion, Lucas and Baird [4] found no statistically significant support for the instrumental theory but did, however, find that extraverts generally experience a higher level of positive affect.

Research has been done to uncover some of the mediators that are responsible for the correlation between extraversion and happiness. Self-esteem and self-efficacy are two such mediators. Self-efficacy has been found to be related to the personality traits of extraversion and subjective well-being.

Another such factor may be self-esteem. Individuals with a greater degree of confidence about themselves and their abilities seem to have both higher degrees of subjective well-being and higher levels of extraversion. Mood maintenance, the ability to maintain one's average level of happiness in the face of an ambiguous situation meaning a situation that has the potential to engender either positive or negative emotions in different individualshas been found to be a stronger force in extraverts.

Another implication of this finding is that extraverts' positive moods last longer than those of introverts. The four temperaments, harm avoidance, reward dependence, novelty seeking and persistence are somewhat analogous to ancient conceptions of melancholic, sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic personality types, although the temperaments reflect dimensions rather than distance categories.

While factor based approaches to personality have yielded models that account for significant variance, the developmental biological model has been argued to better reflect underlying biological processes.

Distinct genetic, neurochemical and neuroanatomical correlates responsible for each temperamental trait have been observed, unlike with five factor models.

The harm avoidance trait has been associated with increased reactivity in insular and amygdala salience networks, as well as reduced 5-HT2 receptor binding peripherally, and reduced GABA concentrations.

Novelty seeking has been associated with reduced activity in insular salience networks increased striatal connectivity. Novelty seeking correlates with dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum, and reduced auto receptor availability in the midbrain.

Reward dependence has been linked with the oxytocin system, with increased concentration of plasma oxytocin being observed, as well as increased volume in oxytocin related regions of the hypothalamus.

Persistence has been associated with increased striatal- mPFC connectivity, increased activation of ventral striatal-orbitofrontal-anterior cingulate circuits, as well as increased salivary amylase levels indicative of increased noradrenergic tone. Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation experiment showcased how babies reacted to having their mother leave them alone in a room with a stranger.

The different styles of attachment, labelled by Ainsworth, were Secure, Ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized. Children who were securely attached tend to be more trusting, sociable, and are confident in their day-to-day life.

Children who were disorganized were reported to have higher levels of anxiety, anger, and risk-taking behavior.Disclaimer: Free essays on Psychology posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only.

Essay about personality psychology

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College Essay One

The essay is the most important part of a college appllication, see sample essays perfect for applying to schools in the US. Personality is defined as the characteristic set of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.

While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with one's environment. Trait-based personality theories, such as those defined by Raymond Cattell define.

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You may think that your doodles are meaningless. In fact, each line describes some aspect of your personality.

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