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Bullying and Its Prevention: The SSA program is a variant of a student watch program Ross, that recruits and trains socially influential youth from the different social groups that exist in schools to note and report instances of bullying and other antisocial behavior Community Matters, However, SSA is considered a second generation student watch program because a much greater emphasis is placed on training youth bystanders on methods to intervene as warranted by the situation rather than simply noticing and reporting bullying to school staff.
The overall goal of the SSA program is to improve the school climate by empowering students who are neither bullies nor victims of bullies, but have a good probability of being a bystander, to play a clear role in preventing episodes of bullying and related activities. The aims of this preliminary review of the literature are to: Provide a brief overview of the bullying problem, Establish the importance of utilizing bystanders in the prevention of bullying, Discuss core factors in effective bystander interventions, and Assess the literature for outcomes of bullying prevention programs and bystander interventions.
Although overall rates of violent crime have declined from their peak in the s, intentional violence still accounts for one-third of all injury deaths Hamburg,and violent injury and death continues to disproportionately affect children, adolescents and young adults US Department of Health and Human Services, Over the last several decades, violence has come to be defined as a public health issue and greater public attention has been paid to its prevention, not simply its deterrence and control Elliot, During the s and increasingly throughout the s, major national initiatives to address youth violence were mounted, including the passage of the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of Violence also became an established field of research study.
Literature Review Bullying and Its Prevention: Implications for the Safe School Ambassadors® Program Prepared by OMNI Research and Training, Inc for Community Matters. 9 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researchers. Coopersmith Career Consulting, an NCCRS member since June , facilitates the preparation of nontraditional post-secondary students for careers that match their interests and abilities. Coopersmith Career Consulting seeks to enable people whose circumstances make it inconvenient or too costly to achieve a traditional college education to nevertheless achieve training and/or.
Over time, these prevention and research efforts helped define bullying prevention as an important area of violence prevention by drawing attention to the: Cycle of violence in which victimization begets future perpetration Violence prevention needs in the school environment Establishment of a bully prevention program as one of the ten Blueprints for Violence Prevention Elliot, Much of what has been learned to date comes from studies conducted in Scandinavian countries, Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, Australia, the Netherlands, and Japan Banks, ; Olweus, An important conclusion drawn from this research is the universality of bullying behaviors Macklem, Bullying is a problem in all schools and countries around the world.
Throughout the s, a number of studies were conducted to understand the prevalence and incidence of bullying. A subsequent study, representing the first nationwide research on bullying in the U.
Ericson used these data to estimate that 1. Moreover, based on the original study, the National Institute of Child Health and Development found that bullying behaviors were a marker for involvement in future violence-related behaviors.
In fact, it reported that children and youth that engaged in bullying behaviors were the group most at risk for engaging in violent behaviors over time Nansel, T.
Because bystanders are almost always present whereas adults rarely witness bullying, their participation in school-based bullying programs is considered instrumental. Becoming an assistant of the bully, Defending the victim, or Remaining an outsider. Bystanders can reinforce the bully by laughing or cheering on behavior.
They can also pretend not to notice what is going on but often are described by the victim as cooperating with the bully because of their nonverbal behavior Macklem, According to Lazarusbystanders may not report abuse because they: In addition to blaming the victim, Sutton and Keogh showed that students who seek to be accepted by a social group that supports bullying are less willing to become involved or take action.
Prevention of bullying is further undermined by the fact that there is a strong taboo among students against informing school staff when episodes of bullying occur Crary, as cited in Macklem Some bystanders also feel relieved when they are not a target and often distance themselves from the victim, reducing empathy and making it easier to walk away from the situation.
As bullying-prevention in schools begin to place greater emphasis on encouraging bystanders during episodes of bullying to intervene rather than simply report, empowering students to act becomes an important focal point.
In addition to addressing the barriers described above, giving youth the knowledge and skills for effective behaviors to engage in as well as providing a network of support from peers and school staff is critical Garrity, Jens, Porter, Sager, Short-Camilli, Social groups start forming as early as the preschool years.
During this period, children may be excluded from groups because often the inclusion of a new member causes deterioration in play.
By elementary school children are still largely motivated by wanting to belong, and many peer groups become established by third grade. Children are now forced to find their place using social power. Social groups have established rules of how children are supposed to act to be accepted by a particular group.
These norms are often established by the most popular child in the group; the child with the most social power. However, being popular is not the same as having many friends.
Because social groups have a hierarchy, the child with the most social power has tremendous influence on the behavior of the other members and determines the status of others in the group.
Macklem describes these group dynamics as follows: Clique leaders may manipulate and rearrange the hierarchy by extending favor on a particular child who is lower in the hierarchy.
Leaders hang on to their power by manipulating the feelings and status of other children. Macklem further describes that by fourth or fifth grade, students in schools with greater than 80 individuals per grade are often split into four groups.
The popular group makes up approximately one third of all students in any given grade level. This group drives the school climate, and is motivated to protect their power.Feb 10, · Spending more hours at work often leads to less time for sleep and insufficient sleep takes a substantial toll on performance.
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