Monday, January 14, Was Reconstruction a "splendid failure"? In The New View of Reconstruction, Eric Foner says that even though Reconstruction failed to meet the goals of Radical Republicans, painlessly rebuild the South, and give the freed blacks complete rights and opportunities, Reconstruction did give African Americans some new chances and a brief taste of a free society. Political, social, and economic progress was made by blacks through the 14th and 15th amendments. Good things came out of the chaotic period of Reconstruction.
Profile[ edit ] The Dunning School viewpoint favored conservative elements in the south the Redeemersplantation owners and former Confederates and disparaged Radical Republicans who favored civil rights for former slaves. The views of the Dunning School dominated scholarly and popular depictions of the era from about to the s.
Adam Fairclougha British historian whose expertise includes Reconstructionsummarized the Dunningite themes: All agreed that black suffrage had been a political blunder and that the Republican state governments in the South that rested upon black votes had been corrupt, extravagant, unrepresentative, and oppressive.
The sympathies of the "Dunningite" historians lay with the white Southerners who resisted Congressional Reconstruction: Although "Dunningite" historians did not necessarily endorse those extralegal methods, they did tend to palliate them. From start to finish, they argued, Congressional Reconstruction—often dubbed "Radical Reconstruction"—lacked political wisdom and legitimacy.
The traditional or Dunning School of Reconstruction was not just an interpretation of history. It was part of the edifice of the Jim Crow System.
It was an explanation for and justification of taking the right to vote away from black people on the grounds that they completely abused it during Reconstruction. It was a justification for the white South resisting outside efforts in changing race relations because of the worry of having another Reconstruction.
All of the alleged horrors of Reconstruction helped to freeze the minds of the white South in resistance to any change whatsoever. And it was only after the Civil Rights revolution swept away the racist underpinnings of that old view—i.
For a long time it was an intellectual straitjacket for much of the white South, and historians have a lot to answer for in helping to propagate a racist system in this country. He supported the idea that the South had been hurt by Reconstruction and that American values had been trampled by the use of the U.
Army to control state politics. He contended that freedmen had proved incapable of self-government and thus had made segregation necessary.
Dunning believed that allowing blacks to vote and hold office had been "a serious error". The Dunning School and similar historians dominated the version of Reconstruction-era history in textbooks into the s.
Their generalized adoption of deprecatory terms such as scalawags for southern white Republicans and carpetbaggers for northerners who worked and settled in the South, have persisted in historical works. Explaining the success of the Dunning School, historian Peter Novick noted two forces—the need to reconcile the North and the South after the Civil War and the increase in racism as Social Darwinism appeared to back the concept with science—that contributed to a "racist historiographical consensus" around the turn of the 20th century on the "criminal outrages" of Reconstruction.
James Ford Rhodesciting [Louis] Agassizsaid that "what the whole country has only learned through years of costly and bitter experience was known to this leader of scientific thought before we ventured on the policy of trying to make negroes [sic] intelligent by legislative acts.
Burgess wrote that "a black skin means membership in a race of men which has never of itself succeeded in subjecting passion to reason. Dunning, blacks "had no pride of race and no aspiration or ideals save to be like whites.
Du Bois as the fairest work of the Dunning school, depicted Reconstruction as "unwise" and black politicians as liabilities to Southern administrations. Beale began to define a different approach.
Beale's analysis combined an assumption of "racial egalitarianism and an insistence on the centrality of class".
He claimed that some of the more progressive southern historians continued to propose "that their race must bar Negroes from social and economic equality. Vann Woodward and Francis Simkins. Merton Coulter represented some typical views. According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, he "framed his literary corpus to praise the Old South, glorify Confederate heroes, vilify northerners, and denigrate southern blacks.
No sooner was revisionism launched, however, than E.
Merton Coulter insisted that "no amount of revision can write away the grievous mistakes made in this abnormal period of American history. And he added a few observations of his own, such as "education soon lost its novelty for most of the Negroes"; they would "spend their last piece of money for a drink of whisky"; and, being "by nature highly emotional and excitable…, they carried their religious exercises to extreme lengths.
The fact that blacks took part in government, wrote E. Merton Coulter in the last full-scale history of Reconstruction written entirely within the Dunning tradition, was a "diabolical" development, "to be remembered, shuddered at, and execrated.
Their aspirations, if mentioned at all, were ridiculed, and their role in shaping the course of events during Reconstruction ignored. When the writers spoke of "the South" or "the people", they meant whites.The Republican state Reconstruction governments in the South made significant and long-lasting achievements in Public education One critical flaw of southern Reconstruction .
RELATING THE BODY OF THE ESSAY TO THE THESIS Many AP essays will fall under the traditional 5-paragraph format (introduction, three body paragraphs, and conclusion).
HOME Free Essays APUSH Outline– Harding/Hoover. APUSH Outline– Harding/Hoover Essay. A. We will write a custom sample essay on APUSH Outline– Harding/Hoover Tennessee River which meant to gov’t would sell electricity in competition with its own citizens/private companies Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)- made in , it.
Contents[show] The APUSH exam underwent a major redesign for The free-response portion now only contains one DBQ and one LEQ (from a choice of two). List of Document Based Questions. Edit. Classic editor History Talk (0) Share. Contents.
Following Reconstruction, many southern leaders promoted the idea of a "New South.". Apush Unit 5 Study Guide Essays; Apush Unit 5 Study Guide Essays. Words Mar 8th, 12 Pages. Show More. Union Army stopped enforcing reconstruction legislation in the south, ending reconstruction Apush Chapter 25 Study Guide Essays.
· reconstruction for Southern white elites: soon restored back to their own institutions, restored its traditional ruling class to power · limitations of reconstruction – failed to resolve racial injustice · 14th and 15th amendment -> basis for a “Second Reconstruction” [The New South].