An analysis of the effects of social and economic pressure in the life of a victorian man reflected

Abstract Using social stress perspective, we studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status being African-American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual versus gay or lesbian in a community sample of self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual LGB adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms.

An analysis of the effects of social and economic pressure in the life of a victorian man reflected

This produces an amusingly amazed reaction from the member of the public, but what Brown does is really a more extreme version of what we do many times a day—gauging social position from visual cues.

When we look at an individual we quickly process visual information that denotes where they fit in the social world, and we do this predominantly without conscious thought. Visual indicators of class and wealth have played an important part in the historical development of the understanding of the relationship between class and health.

Accounts of poverty and ill health in the 19th century frequently included descriptions of the physical effects of poverty upon the body. Death rates in British cities increased during the first half of the 19th century 1 and to contemporary commentators it was clear that the burden of ill health was concentrated on the poorest urban residents and that this was evidenced by their abject physical condition.

While there were some improvements in social conditions and standards of living from the mid 19th century onwards, 6 during the economic depression of the s there was a resurgence of popular and academic interest in the effects of poverty on health.

Again a particular focus was on the physical condition of the poor. However, the explosion of research into inequalities which followed the publication of the Black Report has largely been disinterested in macroscopic physiology 10— 12 and the visual manifestations of class.

Why has the recent inequalities in health literature paid so little attention to the visual evidence of the relationship between social position and health?

An analysis of the effects of social and economic pressure in the life of a victorian man reflected

One possible explanation is that as material conditions of living have improved in an absolute sense the direct effectsof living conditions upon the body have become less clearly apparent. A second possible explanation is that approaches to social class differences in health which emphasize the physical characteristics of the poor have become associated with hereditarian thinking and with eugenics.

An example of this type of hereditarian research is work by Lee Ellis which postulates a fundamental genetic determination of socioeconomic differences in height, birthweight, and brain size, in addition to intelligence, parental investment, work motivation, drug use, altruism, and thus health.

The decline of interest in the visual manifestations of class differences in epidemiological investigations of socioeconomic variations in health coincided with an increasing interest in these visual signifiers in academic sociology and cultural studies.

Much of this work has concentrated on the aesthetics of consumption. Bourdieu argued that this struggle for social distinction was a fundamental element of all social life. While the meaning attributed to visual signs of social distinction vary across time and place, in any setting there is symbolic meaning attached to visual codes, and these convey information about status and socioeconomic position.

The visual codes of clothing and fashion mirror the social structure, allowing us to send messages to others as to how we expect tobe received and providing useful clues as to where to place people in the social hierarchy.

The Aztec civilization used headdresses made from the feathers of eagles to denote the status of brave and esteemed warriors. As material living standards have risen in all socioeconomic groups albeit more in some than in others markers of social class may appear far less obvious and more complex.

It has been argued since the s that the visible signs of class in British society have lessened, but with hindsight these markers remained clearly apparent 19 and they continue today. The visual markers of class have not declined, rather, it is more the case that we have different, proliferated, and more rapidly changing markers of social position such as the precise make and style of trainers deemed desirable by one cultural group or the shade and fabric of a pashminafor others.

It is still the case that subtle signs of appearance are read as markers of social position. In western contexts obesity now indicates low social status and is commonly seen as a sign of self-indulgence, lack of control, and lack of concern for health.

There is even evidence that the stigma of fat is so insidious that it also transfers to those associated, even by mere observed proximity, to overweight people. However, there is certainly evidence that height continues to affect the way we respond to people; one psychological study has found that tall people are perceived as of higher professional status, tall men are seen as more socially attractive, and tall women as more physically attractive than their shorter counterparts.

There has, however, been some recent interest in researching the relationship between health and visual signifiers of socioeconomic position found in housing and living environments.

The sense of decay in the neighbourhood will increase and social disorder will flourish. A number of studies have taken up this idea in an epidemiological setting.

Intriguingly, the authors found an association with hypertension, and that this highly visual measure appeared to capture aspects of the socioeconomic environment that were not revealed by the education or occupation ofthe residents alone.

Our visual culture thus not only relates to how we see and classify individuals, but how we interpret the appearance, and standing, of places as well. Bringing together people and places, in death too visual cues can communicate information about social position.

An example of this is the positive correlation between height of commemorative obelisks and the social standing of the deceased and their length of lifeas exemplified in Glasgow graveyards of the Victorian era. Those people who had greater wealth and superior living conditions during their lives enjoyed greater longevity.

The impact of social determinants on cardiovascular disease

Moreover, these more affluent people also chose to and could afford to continue to visually convey their social status in death through taller memorials—every metre in height of the obelisk translated to 1. Social position, social processes, and inequalities become embodied 36, 37 and our life chances continue to be related toour accumulated social dis advantage.

We do not need to be magicians to see it, but epidemiologists do need to hone their perception to the continued pervasiveness of socioeconomic position on health. Many of the papers in this volume of the IJE contribute to that understanding.A Time of Change in the Market Revolution to was a crucial time for American commerce and urbanization that not only had strong economic influences, .

These two men claim to live up to the Victorian ideals, but then live another life outside of the community to escape the society’s pressures. Henceforth, in the play, the men fall under the pressure of women and Victorian ideals rather than staying true to their identity and personalities.

The leading Social Darwinist in American academic circles was William Graham Sumner (), Professor of political economy and social science at Yale which, under his influence, became a kind of pulpit for Social Darwinism. Analysis of T.S. Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock 'The Love Song of J.

Alfred Prufrock' demonstrates the effects of social and economic pressure in the life of a Victorian man. T.S. Eliot shows us, in an ironic monologue, how the reality of age and social position paralyzes his character with fear.

Analysis of T.S.

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Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock 'The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock' demonstrates the effects of social and economic pressure in the life of a Victorian man.

T.S. Eliot shows us, in an ironic monologue, how the reality of age . Mar 20,  · Analysis of the mid-Victorian period in the U.K. reveals that life expectancy at age 5 was as good or better than exists today, and the incidence of degenerative disease was 10% of ours. This had dramatic effects on their health and life expectancy.

4. How the Mid-Victorians Died. Public Health Patterns An Economic and Social.

The Gilded Age Summary & Analysis